Saturday, January 25, 2014

European construction versus North American construction

Construction of houses varies significantly between Europe and North America.  European houses are typically built with masonry, while North American houses are usually made of wood.  Why is this so?
 
When North America was settled, the vast forests provided a free resource of building material, so wood was the primary construction material used.  This still holds today: compared to Europe, North America possesses large forests which are harvested and used extensively as construction material.  After a few hundred years, a tradition of construction has developed and persists, so that most contractors or builders know how to build a relatively inexpensive home using wood as their primary construction material.

By contrast, most large forests in Europe were clear cut several hundred years ago.  These original forests have never been allowed to return to their original state; the population density of Europe simply does not allow it.  By the law of supply and demand, wood prices in Europe are significantly higher than they are in North America.  There is also a tradition of construction in Europe which involves masonry, and which goes back several hundred (even thousands) of years.  Most Europeans are surprised when they visit North America and notice that the vast majority of houses are built primarily of wood.  Similarly, most Americans visiting Europe are frequently surprised that most European houses are not built with wood. 

The implications of these different approaches to construction have a particular relevance as we face the future and address the challenges posed by changing climate.  The scientific community shares an overwhelming consensus that man-made CO2 is a major contributing factor to our changing climate.  A new awareness of the impact of our activities on CO2 added to the atmosphere has put the practice of home construction into sharper focus by many in the construction industry. 

Research indicates that masonry construction is “greener” than traditional wood construction, for several reasons.  First, fewer trees are harvested, and more forest remains intact.  Trees are a major carbon sequestering force in nature: they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and create oxygen.  Conversely, cement production creates CO2, and the question must be answered: which has less impact on the environment, wood construction or masonry?

As discussed in this article, for a 2,400 square foot wood house, it takes approximately 750 cubic feet of wood to construct only the walls of the house, and requires 2.3 acres to produce that amount of wood.  This 2.3 acres of mature forest would otherwise remove 11,818 lbs. of CO2 per year from the atmosphere (5,200 lbs/acre).

By comparison, a 2,400 square foot masonry house requires 23,558 lbs. of cement to construct only the walls. During the manufacture of the required amount of cement, 11,779 lbs. of CO2 are released into the atmosphere – resulting in slight improvement at the end of the first year. However, concrete provides significant improvement from year 2 and beyond.

Another issue that is a factor is the area of disruption.  Cement production is relatively localized to a few square miles of quarries and mills, whereas lumbering affects thousands of square miles of land and requires considerable energy be expended to clear and transport a forest and convert trees in to lumber. Lumbering decreases the biodiversity of forest; it creates erosion and pollution problems. It also enters into the problem of forest fires.  Instead of allowing forest fires to occur as a natural function, forest managers prevent and put out fires, which robs the soils of the benefits of natural fertilization that occurs during burning.

This comparison does not take into account other factors of construction relating to sustainability, such as the fuel energy – even more if the lumber is imported.  A concrete house has a much longer service life than a wood frame house, lessening landfill burdens and creating the need to expend more energy to reconstruct the house. Europeans have traditionally built homes that last far longer than homes built in the U.S. The result is that with their reduced birthrates, the housing stock turnover is far less. This translates to a much lower percentage of GNP devoted to housing, 9% compared with over 12% in the U.S.

To build a 2,400 square foot house requires 2.3 acres of mature forest which absorbs 11,818 lbs of CO2 per year. Producing the 23,558 lbs. of cement required to build the same house with concrete produces virtually the same amount at 11,779 lbs. of CO2. The CO2 ‘payback’ when building with concrete is one year.  Considering it takes 50 years for a new trees to mature, the ‘ROI’ from using concrete is 2,290% by the time the re-planted forest fully matures.

In addition to the environmental benefits provided by concrete construction, significant savings in heating and cooling houses and other buildings are realized through more thermally efficient concrete construction.  These homes will also last much longer, have a higher resale value, will be able to withstand rot, termites, fire, storms, etc., and thus have a much higher value over their lifetime than wooden construction.


It is time for North America to reassess its construction practices and evaluate which form is better: wood or concrete?  Instead of imposing burdensome new government regulation on the marketplace, we should educate the new homeowners of tomorrow, and allow the lower cost of superior construction determine how homes of the future are built.  Wooden construction is often called “stick construction,” it is not a compliment, and it is accurate.  Just ask the third little pig or the big bad wolf.

289 comments:

  1. Hi
    It’s hard to find knowledgeable people regarding.but you sound like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks for sharing this with others.

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  2. While I'm in favor of more masonry construction I have two questions.

    1) How would you get contractors and tradesmen educated about the new building techniques. I find that it's hard to get them to learn or even listen to anything new, that is not already being done around them.

    2) Does having the house last hundreds of years really matter? With Cities continuing to grow and grow would you really expect the houses to stay around for hundreds of years or would you expect them to get demolished to make way for something bigger within a few centuries?

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    1. Aren't the timeless structures in Europe the reason tourist flock into
      Europe every year.

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    2. I'm british.my sisters house was built in the 13th century and has many older homes around it,most of the new ones also look similar. the homes are silent indoors,there is no wind noise or traffic sounds,the walls are between 1 too 3 ft thick and have already lasted the test of time,who wouldn't want a home like that

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    3. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  3. Thanks for your comments. I'll try to answer your questions:
    (1) First -perhaps most importantly- I have simplified masonry systems which are not yet described on this blog; these are much simpler to use, easy for tradesmen and even laymen to use. Furthermore, we will have several efforts in educating the tradesmen, including videos available free at our (upcoming, yet unpublished) website. We'll also be offering courses in using this system. I We also plan to train and educate BAC/IMI (Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers/ International Masonry Institute) the "best hands in the business." Finally, we plan to have a focused marketing effort for the geographic area of each blockmaker that makes our masonry product; this effort will include free workshops showing how to build with this system.
    (2) Does having houses last really matter? That's like saying "does having children matter? They're all going to die anyway, why bother?" Of course it matters, make quality things that will last, especially in the face of our changing climate, housing faces new threats: rising sea level, droughts, fires, floods, more violent weather, etc. This masonry system will stand up to these challenges. Lastly, if you look at societies which truly value their architecture, old buildings made of masonry get periodically restored and refurbished, every few hundred years - they were made to last, and they serve their purpose over centuries. For example, in Italy, old masonry buildings are treated like this. It is a more sustainable, higher quality of building and better quality of providing living spaces than disposable cheap buildings which are shoddy and characterize the American "McMansion." None of these "McMansions" will be around in 100 years, they are very poorly made.

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    1. How will masonry stand up to droughts, floods, and rising sea levels?

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    2. Masonry is unaffected by a drought, and its high thermal mass will help keep a building cooler in hot drought conditions. Masonry can also be used to store rainwater (rainwater harvesting, rwh). Here's a link to an entry on this: http://masonrydesign.blogspot.com/2012/11/building-water-storage-tank.html

      Masonry can be used to build high performance, affordable, easy-to-install breakwaters, levees, and flood control hardscaping/landscaping features. These applications will help alleviate the impacts of rising sea level. Properly designed, installed and maintained masonry structures can withstand flooding and water damage, certainly much better than wood-framed houses and buildings. Here are some pertinent links from this blog:

      http://masonrydesign.blogspot.com/2010/05/retaining-walls-and-landscaping.html

      http://masonrydesign.blogspot.com/2010/05/retaining-walls-to-make-glacier.html

      http://masonrydesign.blogspot.com/2010/07/can-mason-build-submarine.html

      Thanks for your interest, please let me know if you have other questions.

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    3. Does it matter whether a house lasts matter? Of course it does! Some houses in Europe are more that a thousand
      years old. It's very difficult to find a house that is more than 100 years old that is still standing in North America. Just think of the environmental impact that has. Try the following tests in a North American house. Try flushing the toilet. You will have to turn the TV up. Try jumping up and down, the wall will shake and pictures will rattle. What happens with termites or really bad weather?

      Lets face it, North Americans have been sold a cheap bill of goods as usual. And trying to defend an inferior product can not be justified unless someone is greasing their pockets.

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    4. Does it matter whether a house lasts matter? Of course it does! Some houses in Europe are more that a thousand
      years old. It's very difficult to find a house that is more than 100 years old that is still standing in North America. Just think of the environmental impact that has. Try the following tests in a North American house. Try flushing the toilet. You will have to turn the TV up. Try jumping up and down, the wall will shake and pictures will rattle. What happens with termites or really bad weather?

      Lets face it, North Americans have been sold a cheap bill of goods as usual. And trying to defend an inferior product can not be justified unless someone is greasing their pockets.

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    5. You are so correct. I have owned both, homes in Europe and American wood houses, and you cannot compare a wood box that rodents and termite fester in to a stone or concrete house. It's like comparing a car to a house. It's not in the same league. They were sold a cheap bill of goods as usual. It is being kept out of the media like the plague. Several people are lining their pockets such as the wood industry and all the chemical companies that fill the drywalls, especially fireproof products are full of harmful chemicals. Treating the wood chemicals and of course it is a way to keep Americans perpetually poor. Because they will never own anything for any extended period of time. Everything in these homes breaks apart. After 10 years it starts after 30 it's all over the house stinks is infested with termites and on and on and on. Some homes are worse than this and some are not quite that bad yet. But they all get there. that means more money because they have to replace everything and have to continue fixing these homes which realigns the same pockets that put them there in the first place. You seem to seem to understand the real motives.

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    6. Mr. Roberts, I appreciate the article. While the various historical, cultural, and financial implications of differing residential construction techniques is, perhaps, "in the eye of the beholder", I believe your commentary on the environmental impacts of wood frame construction misses the mark.

      Sustainable forestry and selective harvesting (wherein only certain number of carefully selected trees within a particular area) is far from bad for the environment. Carbon Fixation, or the process of creating sugars and other carbohydrate chains, is dependent on photosynthesis and thus light. Competition among old-growth trees often limits the amount of light that makes it through the canopy and reaches the forest floor where new growth is struggling to grow under less than ideal conditions. Numerous studies show that clearing some (but NOT all) trees allows for far faster carbon fixation and sequestration through more rapidly growing new growth than other cycles (such as natural processes like regularly repeating forest fires that have important impact in clearing old growth from time to time and allowing new genetic variation to grow).

      Likewise, we now know that many environmentalist strategies that were totally against any form of forest management, the clearing of various types of growth, and over-active firefighting (especially with fires from natural causes) allowed for so much old growth than when forest fires finally did occur, they burned so hot it actually sterilized the forest floor instead of allowing many natural processes caused by fires (for example with certain species with seeds that only open in the high temperatures associated with forest fires).

      We can and should be far smarter with our natural resources. However, many modern environmentalists, with their almost religious zeal, have tried to make humanity out as the only evil on the earth and as the one species clearly born in the original sin of existing. They ignorantly believe that any intervention on the part of humanity is somehow wrong.

      The fact is its typically the forestry products manufacturers, hunters, and others who are the most ardent, and effective, in protecting nature and our natural resources. When we wake up and realize we can utilize market incentives to protect nature and align our interests with a clean and healthy environment, we'll truely see the next step in human civilization, a step where people everywhere, though knowledge and technology, can protect, sustain, and repair where necessary, our common Home...made of both wood and stone.

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    7. Peter, thanks for your thoughtful comment and interest in this topic. You sum it up well with your concluding remark about "our common home made of both wood and stone." Wood certainly has an important role, as does masonry. Here in the Americas the long tradition of building with wood has remained unquestioned, as a given, and that is short-sighted. Since I wrote this blog entry 6 years ago, a lot of technology development has taken place in the search for more environmentally appropriate construction materials, that will provide the resiliency required. With the immediacy of climate change (happening before our very eyes) these topics are increasingly important. I'm currently investigating novel materials to replace Original Portland Cement (OPC) which creates greenhouse gases on its manufacture. My company has been formally invited to submit proposals to both the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) on this technology. I'm taking a break from this very grant writing to post this comment now. Thanks again for your interest Peter, this topic is worth our sustained interest.

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  4. This entry is also relevant to your second question: http://masonrydesign.blogspot.com/2011/08/brick-mortar.html

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  5. "The scientific community shares an overwhelming consensus that man-made CO2 is a major contributing factor to our changing climate."

    Yet another brainwashed zombie

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  6. Obtaining a building permit in the European Union varies according to country. There is a very big difference in time, costs and efforts, if we were to compare obtaining a building permit in the capital city or in any other city or town. Obtaining a Slovak building permit for a family house in surroundings of Bratislava may only take 3 months, whereas obtaining a Slovak building permit for a residential apartment building in Bratislava may take even one year. In Slovakia, there are two basic levels included in the proceedings. The first one is planning permit and the second one is building permit. Intended developments must be in line with the zoning plan of the city or town. For planning permit, certain documentation and approvals must be submitted to a local Slovak building authority. Planning permits includes opinion of several Slovak authorities, organisations and companies. Building permit requires even more detailed project documentation. Detailed procedures can be found at http://www.slovacon.sk

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    Replies
    1. What does this have to do with the article?

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    2. I get a lot of spam, which this appears to be. There's an entire industry of people who post spam on blogs, it's hard to keep up with them. I try to delete most of it. They refer to building in Europe, this is the topic of this blog entry. If you're interested in getting a building permit in Slovakia, you may want to contact them.

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  7. Could you comment on the existence of sustainably managed forests and the renewable characteristic of wood in relation to your arguments?

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    1. "Sustainable forestry" is not economically viable. It is recognized as a greenwashing effort by the forestry industry.

      The Sustainable Forestry Initiative’s label approves environmentally irresponsible forestry practices. Despite its ‘Good for you. Good for our forests.’ logo, the SFI program certifies logging practices that have a disastrous impact on North American forests. Here’s an example: SFI’s rules do not require any work to restore forests that are essential for the survival of rare wildlife.

      The average clearcut approved by SFI is the size of 90 football fields. Whether it’s the average SFI-approved clearcut, or bigger, the damage to watersheds, water quality and soil productivity are often permanent. SFI allows excessive use of toxic chemicals such as pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides that contaminate fresh water.

      The SFI certification program actually assures its timber company customers that it does not prohibit logging in old growth forests, wild areas that do not currently have roads, or other places in which ecological values are especially rich.

      SFI’s greenwashing harms forests. And SFI’s greenwash also undermines the hard work of those trying to protect forests, or create a more forest-friendly product.

      source; http://www.forestethics.org/sustainable-forestry-initiative

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  8. Hi,
    Do you have any idea about how many square feet of brick and cast stone masonry is specified in the US each year for new and repair projects?

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    Replies
    1. I'm sorry, but no: I don't. These numbers are notoriously hard to get. It is a very fragmented industry, and producers keep their numbers private.

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  9. Very nice post. I like the way you present this article : European construction versus North American construction..Thanks for sharing.

    Site Preparation for Construction

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  10. Great article, however I served in Europe for several military tours living in Germany, Spain & visiting several other northern European countries. I found mason (brick & mortar) construction to be extremely inefficient in winter, generating huge heating bills. Bottom line, my home was never warm, nor were the homes of most of my European friends. I admit. masonry construction felt cooler during spring & fall. Could you explain if current masonry construction methods create more efficient homes during cold seasons & what are average heating costs for a 3,000 sq/ft masonry home in Europe? Thanks

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    Replies
    1. Thanks for your comment. You are correct in noting that masonry is a poor thermal insulator. The advantage of masonry, thermally, is that it has a high thermal mass, and can absorb and store significant thermal energy. The key to taking advantage of high thermal mass is to insulate the outside of the masonry. This way, heat is stored in the masonry, and re-released to the inside. If this approach is used, and properly done, the resulting building is close to, or actually is, "zero energy" and requires little or no energy to heat and cool. If masonry is un-insulated, it is relatively thermally inefficient, as you have noted.

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  11. Is the cost and/or time involved significantly higher in masonry homes? My relatives' homes in Germany seems so much more sturdy and it was interesting to see the interior walls and the stairs also made of cement or brick, with the stairs being covered in wood. I would love to build one as my next home. A German relative referred to us in the States as having "plywood houses." Made me laugh.

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    Replies
    1. It seems to depend on whom you ask. I am a proponent and supporter of masonry, so my answer is that masonry is less expensive than wood. Someone from the timber industry is likely to say the opposite. If you look at the structure I built in my most recent blog http://masonrydesign.blogspot.com/2016/03/building-masonry-prototype.html
      it cost me about $4,000 in materials. This is very inexpensive, for about 750 square feet. If we also include the life-cycle cost, there is no comparison: masonry is much less expensive per year, because it lasts much longer. If we also include the energy savings provided by masonry, it gets even less expensive over time, because less energy is required each year, saving additional money each year. I agree with your German relative, although I call it "stick construction" as do many others. Thank you for your interest.

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    2. I want to build 2000 sf home. Where do I begin?

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  12. Your post is awesome.
    You have shared very valuable information to us.
    Thank you so much for sharing this.
    Brick Masonry Retaining Walls

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  13. Manufactured and modular homes are two different things. One is a trailer and one is a house built indoors in sections.
    home builder houston

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  14. Great info!

    So those amazing European buildings are made of concrete?

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    Replies
    1. Just the newer European buildings are mostly concrete. Here in the US, building code does not allow you to build with stone, so I focussed on concrete as a masonry material in this blog entry. Of course, all the amazing old European masonry is stone, the Romans did some great concrete work too.

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    2. So can I build a home like a European home in the US?

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    3. no you idiot...you would have to build it in europe and ship it to the states, with ...duhhhhhh

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    4. To 'Stone house wanted' question, again: it really depends on code. Generally, in the US stone cannot be used as a building material under current code. It seems silly to me. You may want to consult with a local architect or building engineer, and learn what your state and local code requirements might allow.
      Or, you could build it in europe and ship to the states.

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    5. Look up slip form. use stone with concrete. go to area with less controlling building codes

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  15. This is really a nice blog in which you discuss some useful things, thanks for sharing this and keep going on.

    Construction Solution | House Painting Services

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  16. Great blog created by you. I read your blog, its best and useful information. You have done a good work. Thanks.ready to occupy villas in thrissur

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  17. Nice article! European wood houses have a many adventages. Check this http://www.farosgroup.fi/palvelumme/markkina-ja-palvelututkimukset/

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    1. Europeans should not buy into the scam they to Americans convincing them to live in a wood box. You are hurting Europeans by spreading this nonsense. Very sad to see the some Europeans have been coned into this. So sad. I hope to educate yourself more and change your direction to one that does not hurt people. I was in Europe 2 months ago and saw the increase of wood construction. I was present at a sales presentation to Europeans on Wyehwood is good and better. Most of it was lies, not disclosing that the products are treated with chemicals and not lasting. Very disappointed in the presentation.

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    2. Northern Europe have long traditions of sturdy wood houses made out of timber, they are much warmer and easier to keep warm then stone houses.

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  18. This video post is really incredible, the commotion quality and the photo nature of this tape post is truly astounding.
    Smart home Singapore

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  19. An interesting discussion is worth comment. I feel that you must write extra on this matter, it might not be a taboo subject but generally people are not enough to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheers

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  20. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  21. I am studying Mechanical Minning and Metallurgical Engineer in the NTUA of Athens, one of the top Universities in Europe and the world, and as a girl myself, I always wondered why on earth are US houses built like that opposed to the European Contruction laws and all. It was an amazing thread to read myself as I am on my 4th year in University ( it is a 5 year Uni in total) and I back up every information you provided. Excellent work! I hope for their safety first and only (one of my biggest concerns studying in my field) , they soon start building houses like that way more often. It is a huge no-no for me to see all of the victims of either hurricanes or just extreme weather breaks to shutter beautiful houses like that, just cause of their way they are built. Much love, x

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    1. Why wood? Simple. Upon arriving there was no way to make concrete but there was wood everywhere.

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    2. Hi garyo, Thanks for your comment. Yes, you hit the nail on the head. Some additional insight: After 1666 (the year of the Great Fire of London) Prince Charles decreed that all of London had to be built with masonry (just before he was beheaded by Oliver Cromwell). As a result, a robust brick industry developed in England, producing a surplus of bricks. The triangle trade (exported goods, rum, slaves) had ships sailing for the New World with empty holds which needed ballast. They were filled with bricks to provide ballast and provide construction material in the New World. This material couldn't keep pace with the rate of new buildings being made, so -as you said, and as I pointed out in this post- wood was used because of the seemingly endless forests in the Americas. The story of bricks as ballast just adds a flavorful detail to the story. Thanks for your interest garyo.

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  22. My house is made from wood & stucco with 100 year lasting tile roof. It is 32 years old and still going strong. My walls do not shake when jumping in the house and I do not have to "turn up the tv" whenever someone flushes the toilet. There are high quality builders and there are bad business orders in America. They aren't all the same.

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  23. The real problem is NOT C20 or whatever the hell it's called but globalization which is a fancy word for China slave labor.

    All our wood in America gets sent to China to be processed and we buy our own wood back at a premium price with crappy quality but hey it's cheaper then using US workers who know what they are doing. This has been going on for 30 some years now.

    TODAY's problem is there is nobody left that knows how to do anything the old way and those who do are either dead or dying off from natural age.

    Perhaps this is planned obsolescence as part of Agenda 21 or Illuminati whatever the agenda is but wood in America is not good quality as it was most of it's history.

    *Climate change* is only a small picture. An important one but small as regardless of mankinds activities we are due for a warming which will last 200 years regardless if we are *in* the picture or not.

    What we can do instead of spreading the wealth outside of the US is to prepare such as using ocean power for example to bring new sources of electricity and NOT tear down the west coast dams because of sucker fish.

    Tearing down sources of power only make our country a pretty stupid loser.

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  24. Even in *natural* global warming we will have a few years of *colder* then relative average which will be leveraged to say "See it worked! We reduced climate changed!" or it can be twisted to say 'This is caused by climate change!" depending on how they feel at the time.

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  27. Superb content! Pleasure to read!
    Check out also our construction blog!

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  28. In my country many houses are made from wood like in America, specially in colder regions, and there's a law that construction companies and wood suppliers for various forms of craft including construction, must plant trees when they harvest, and they analyze where trees can be harvested, and after trees are cut that are is left to recover for a time until they can cut trees again, that way I think there's no problem with using wood for construction. But if people just deforest nature and don't think about the consequences then it's clearly harmful to the environment

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  29. I'm not sure what country you live in, Philip (Canada?). Wood does not last nearly as long as masonry or concrete. Wood will also catch fire, it will be eaten by termites, it will rot and mold, and it is not nearly as strong as masonry or concrete. Whenever one thinks of the Carbon footprint, it is very important to consider the useful life cycle of the material used, and masonry has a much longer life cycle than wood. I understand that many people like wood, it is part of their tradition of building, and is viewed favorably for a number of reasons: some of these reasons are perhaps less obvious. For example: Jesus was a carpenter, not a mason.

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    Replies
    1. I think it is misguided to advise that there is one best building material for every continent.

      Delete
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  33. Your statements about forestry is pretty much guesswork... There are more trees in the USA now than 100 years ago. And let's look at an example of why forests have so much burnable forage: there was a couple who owned a home in the forest and their's was the only home that didn't get burned down..why?...because they disobeyed the idiotic law of their territory that said you can't clean up the debris in the forest. Less stuff to burn..less burning going on.

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  34. When the next big California earthquake happens, they'll be glad they didn't die in a block/concrete house.

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    1. My work is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. These structures are much safer in seismic events than standard construction. You will not die, you will be much safer. They are even suitable for Tsunami's. Thank you!

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  35. Try doing a remodeling project on a concrete home...

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    1. I have remodeled many concrete and masonry homes. This is standard practice in places like Italy, it is done every few hundred years. These buildings will last for thousands of years, unlike wood. and... Thank You again friend! Cheer up man, it's not that bad. You'll be OK. Try smiling!!

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  36. I cited my sources, so it's not "guesswork." There are, indeed, more trees in the US than there were 100 years ago: but globally there are fewer trees than at any point in human history. That's the big picture. According to Thomas Crowther, a postdoctoral researcher at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, the spread of human influence has reduced the number of trees on the planet by half, which is "astronomical." (source: http://www.upworthy.com/america-has-more-trees-now-than-its-had-in-100-years-but-were-not-out-of-the-woods-yet). What couple in the forest had the only home that didn't burn down? Do you have a source? I have many such sources, it's usually a concrete house that didn't burn down (source: http://abcnews.go.com/US/mans-concrete-home-survives-raging-wildfire-washington/story?id=33286398). There are many examples like this. Thank you.

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  37. Your logic on the CO2 emission is broken. A mature forest has a lower rate of CO2 absorption compared to a younger forest. This is because the rate of CO2 absorption is related to the growth rate. Look into CO2 sequestration strategies using forests, forest preservation is a sub-optimal strategy. The optimal strategy is to harvest a forest a few years after it has hit its peak growth rate and re-seed. There is no way a concrete house which produces net emissions will have any CO2 advantage over a wood house which will result in a net reduction of emission (as long as the forest is replanted, which is done for harvested timber).

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  38. I beg to differ. According to your logic, we should clear cut all old growth forests and plant younger forests, thus unleashing even more CO2 (sequestered in old growth wood). If you read the source I cited carefully, the logic is delineated. Furthermore, great advances are being made in creating CO2 reduced, or neutral, or even net negative CO2 cements. These methods are discussed elsewhere in my blog, I can cite them if you'd like. Thanks for your interest, this remains a very important topic.

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    Replies
    1. That is what is called a strawman, Peter. Just because the optimal strategy involves harvesting does not mean that one should apply it universally.

      What I said is that your conclusion is based upon a faulty premise and that the calculation done by your source is a joke. What your source does is calculate the CO2 sequestered by a forest by multiplying the percent regrowth by the CO2 sequestered by a mature forest. The major problem with this calculation is that the carbon sequestered by a forest is not fixed value but a function of age. Only during the first five years will a regrown forest sequester less CO2 than a mature forest, by the time a harvested forest hits maturity the net result will be more carbon sequestered over a preserved forest.

      I am pretty agnostic about the emissions of concrete vs wood since these are drop in the bucket compared to other sources, but there is no CO2 advantage to concrete. Even net negative CO2 concrete under preform harvested wood for sequestration performance. Concrete housing should be promoted on its actual merits, not from faulty info provided by a concrete manufacture.

      Delete
    2. Your own argument appears to me as a strawman, Robert. By harvesting mature forest (replacing with new growth) you release all of the carbon thereby sequestered. More carbon is sequestered in an old growth forest.

      I do not follow your logic at all when you say "Even net negative CO2 concrete under preform harvested wood for sequestration performance." That is simply nonsensical.

      I am not a concrete manufacturer, I am an engineer and designer. I do my best to promote my work on its actual merits; CO2 considerations are part of that. If you read some of my other blog entries my technology and its merits are described in great detail.

      One of the interesting new technologies that is carbon negative is provided by BIOmason, they are a company (like mine) that is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. You may want to check them out, very promising technology. http://biomason.com/

      This remains an important subject and I appreciate your input and feedback. I don't mean to be arguing with you here, but we disagree on the role of CO2 in masonry versus wood. One of the main obvious reasons to build with masonry is that masonry buildings can last for hundreds or thousands of years: an obvious and irrefutable means to reduce the carbon footprint.

      All the best Robert.

      Delete
    3. "By harvesting mature forest (replacing with new growth) you release all of the carbon thereby sequestered. More carbon is sequestered in an old growth forest."

      What do you think wood is? Unless you are burning the wood the vast majority of the carbon is sequestered in the timber. This is why growing forests sequester more carbon because the tree is converting CO2 into cellulose, where as mature forest have limited cellulose production and primarily sequester by deposing biomass into the soil. Cellulose production sequesters far more carbon hence is why harvesting a forest is more optimal from carbon standpoint and why timber has net negative carbon emissions.

      "I do not follow your logic at all when you say "Even net negative CO2 concrete under preform harvested wood for sequestration performance." That is simply nonsensical."

      That means that the amount of CO2 sequestered per kg (or $, or J of energy, or what ever metric you want to use) will be less for concrete than for wood.

      Delete
    4. Wood does not stay as wood indefinitely. It will rot, or mold, or burn eventually (unless it is converted to coal, over thousands and millions of years). Are you familiar with the Carbon cycle? Rotted wood emits the same exact amount of CO2 as if it had been burned. This is why timber does not ever have a net negative carbon emission, it will eventually oxidize (rot or burn) and form CO2. Wood creates the same exact amount of Oxygen while it is a living tree as it consumes when it is eventually burned or rotted. This makes it 'carbon neutral.'

      If you looked at BIOmason (for example) it uses bacteria to consume CO2 from the atmosphere (this is what is meant by carbon negative) and converts it into calcium carbonate, which acts as a cement. It will never rot or burn and release that CO2 back into the atmosphere. It acts as a true carbon sink with long-term sequestration, unlike wood, which acts as a temporary sequestration: until it rots or burns.

      I hope this is clear. Cheers.

      Delete
    5. Wooden homes stay in use for hundred years or more if properly maintained. By using plantation wood which is constantly regrown there's a constant binding of carbon, which is not the case with climax system forests, where a lot of the forest is rotting wood, which is a part of a natural cycle. In any case, every time a home is built from plantation wood, it binds carbon - not indefinitely, but for a long time.

      Nevertheless, BIOmason also does that, so it's definitely a viable alternative. Just remember that concrete is not forever, it is also affected by rain and it is also carbon. Wood is renewable, which I think is the main point - I guess BIOmason is as well, but many types of concrete uses fossilized material.

      So, you cannot compare just concrete vs wood without clarifying that it has to be renewable forms of concrete, while the vast majority of concrete is fossil based.

      Delete
    6. Thanks for your comment Kurt. If you think that wood will last as long as concrete, you are delusional! (I'm only slightly joking). Wood has a tendency to burn, rot, be eaten by insects, or otherwise degrade and decay. Concrete, on the other hand, continues to form hydration products over time; that is, it gains strength over time. This formation of hydration products corresponds to its continuing to capture CO2 from the atmosphere. It will continue to sequester CO2 as it matures and gains strength (granted, this occurs on a small scale, asymptotically over time). While wood may sequester CO2 for decades (a century or more, at most) concrete will sequester CO2 for centuries or millenia, as is the case with Roman concrete. I fully agree with you that there needs to be an industry-wide drastic reduction and eventual removal of fossil fuels in the production of cement used to make concrete. I've written of this several times on this blog (for example: http://masonrydesign.blogspot.com/2012/01/cement-production-and-greenhouse-gasses.html) I think these exchanges are valuable, and will hopefully help inform any interested reader. Thanks again for your comment Kurt.

      Delete
    7. My parents owns an old concrete house (early 20th century, so right at the beginning of concrete construction) and I can tell you that concrete is not eternal. People think it is because most concrete buildings are less than 60 years old. Overtime small cracks develop and the steel rebar inside starts to rust. It takes a lot of energy and money to fix this. Also if there are ground movement cracks developp, at the moment in Europe we are starting to dismantle unserviceable concrete structures built after WW2. Nothing is eternal...

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    8. Thanks for your comment. We use a new, innovative rebar which does not rust, so no cracks develop from rusting rebar. It is made by Neuvokas corporation, known commercially as "gatorbar." This new technology is a game changer. Quality concrete is much less likely to crack, it will absolutely last much longer than wood.

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    9. Sorry for the late reply. Of course, some forms of concrete lasts for very long and some forms of wood in some types of climates or environments don't last very long.
      However, in very northern environments, wood seems to last for a long time. This is also the kind of environment where wood has an advantage in insulation. In more southern places, especially places with lots of wood eating bugs and whatnot, wood becomes a less viable option.
      On the other hand, the binding of carbon I was talking about, is what happens in regrowing plantation forests, which equals most of the mass of the entire wood construction of the house!

      I live in Europe, and most of our houses are brick or brick and concrete. Very few are wood. It is, unfortunately, based on limited resources, as especially the sand used seems to become scarcer (not all sand is useful for construction).
      There are good reasons for every option, as long as the right choice is made within that option (such as not using old growth, not using fossil lime etc.)

      Delete
  39. I live in North America, and travel to Europe often and admire the "long-term" building strategies there. The subject of asphalt roofing materials used here alone makes me want to bang my head against my wood wall in my house. Why can't we smarten up and use clay, masonry, slate, or more metal materials like Europeans do? The answer is simply. GDP. European mindset- use better materials to last centuries. North American mindset- use easily available wood products to build "good enough" homes. Then you can keep selling them again in 100 years when the house falls apart. Everyone from the building/renovation industry hates this reality (their job is what puts food on the table), but it's true. I wish North America would move towards building better homes like Europeans, but politics are involved. I really liked this article.

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  46. Mr. Roberts,
    One question. Historically one thing that I noticed is there *was* a time in which structural masonry was far more widespread than today, in spite of the massive use of wood framing if we go to any older urban area in the midwest or east coast, or a number of older farm houses, there are a log of old cinder block (true cinder block) primitive early concrete block (some hand molded using Sears & Roebuck molds) and lots, lots, lots of brick everywhere. Going to the 19th century stone housing also appeared to be very common.

    So though Europe had a long masonry tradition, there were certainly well rooted vernacular masonry practices in the USA for a very long time. Something appears to have changed later in the 20th century. But even taking ranch homes, there are many cavity wall with CMU backed brick fronting or even non-cavity wall two wythe CMU and Brick structural Suburban ranch homes going into the early 70s..

    Wood seems to have always been the majority, but masonry was not uncommon until recently.

    I wonder if the present day dominance of wood occurred in spurts region by region.

    I'm glad to read your blog articles though, they are inspiring and you seem to be a pioneer. I hope that our building codes once again recognize the value of safe and affordable structural masonry.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Kamal, Thank you for your comments and your interest. There certainly is a history of masonry construction here in the US, especially early in its founding as colonies of England. Part of this was a consequence of the "triangle trade" in which mostly empty ships left England for the New World, to pick up material from the colonies (tobacco, sugar, rum, etc.). Empty ships leaving from England needed ballast in their holds for stability, in order to prevent them from being "top heavy." This ballast was typically provided by bricks, stored deep in the hold of the ship. These bricks were then unloaded upon arrival in the New World, and were used as building material. Why were there so many bricks available in England? This was largely due to the Great Fire of London in 1666, which changed the laws governing construction in England, where all houses had to be made of masonry, for fire safety. As a result, there was no shortage of bricks: there was a huge surplus, and some of these were shipped to the colonies. Still, this was not enough building material to meet the voracious needs for construction material in the rapidly growing New World, so people turned to the apparently inexhaustible supply of wood provided by the vast forests of North America. Accordingly, the tradition of wood construction established itself in North America. It became industrialized and standardized early in the 20th century, and further evolved into today's massive construction industry, which is heavily reliant on wood as a construction material. I hope this helps answer your question. Thanks again for your interest.

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  124. HOW ILLUMINATI BROTHERHOOD MAKE ME RICH AND FAMOUS. I am a member of the illuminati brotherhood, i want to give thanks to the Lord Lucifer, for what he has done for me, he changed my life, he bring joy and happiness to my life, i am living a good life today is because of the illuminati brotherhood, i have being try all my life to join the illuminati brotherhood, i was scammed some many times but i still did not give up, because when you give up in life, life will also give up on you, if you have been scammed so many times, my advise for you is not to give up, because the illuminati brotherhood is real, i joined the real illuminati paying just 300usd, to join the illuminati, i want you all to know today, , you don't pay money to join, my advice for you all is to make up your mind and join the illuminati brotherhood, when my initiation process was completed the benefits amount which was given to me is $1,000,000 to start a new life, this is the reason why i can not stop hailing the illuminati brotherhood, Are you a musician or a politician or a business person and you want to become rich in what you do if you are in any kind of problems or you in support in life, my advice to you is to join the illuminati brotherhood so that all your problems can be solve in life, to join the illuminati brotherhood you can contact James on whatsapp, +2348102497218 or Email him on illuminatip8@gmail.com for more info

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  126. My testimony on how I became an illuminati member. My names are Erica Johnson and am 39 years old,am from USA bahamas I want to notify the people who want to join the great illuminati,on how I was helped by the Great Illuminate World secret society in regaining back my business position after been sacked for about 5years and six months. I have been in pains and troubles ever since I ,was sacked from the company where I work, called 'USA Deposit Insurance corporation' as an agency executive. I have been hopeless, financially down through out those years. But one day, as I was browsing through the Internet, I came across the post of the Great Illuminate world society saying you can be famous, rich and successful in life by been a member of the great Illuminati member, immediately I contacted and I explained everything to them and they recommended me and helped and I pay for the Initiation Fee which will be used to initiate me, and I was initiated to the great illuminati world secret society after and also they gave me all the guidelines and told me their place worship. With the help of the Great illuminati world society I was able to go to temple and there I was initiated fully as a complete Illuminati member. Surprisingly 48 hours after i was initiated, I receive a call from the company that I have been accepted back again as the agency executive of the company at first I was shocked and surprised when the brotherhood offered me 500,000.00 USD a car and house with other things that has changed my life for good regain myself, whatsapp Mr berry castle on +1 (779) 324-0633 or email illuminatiusatemple666@gmail.com

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  130. WELCOME TO ILLUMINATI BROTHERHOOD ORGANIZATION.

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  131. I don't know how to say this, but all i can see is that the illuminati is real, because i have finally see the goodness of being a member of illuminati, the illuminati is a big brotherhood family, which help and protect human in this earth, the illuminati is real, why i said so is because i have meet so many fake people using the illuminati names to cheat on people, if are really interested to be part of the brotherhood, i was once a victim and i have so many experience, because of this i was thinking the illuminati brotherhood is just a name, but now i believe in the illuminati brotherhood because i finally meet the right agent, i spent thousands of dollars because i want to join, but all was fake people, when i meet the right people, i was thinking i will pay money to join, to my own surprise it is totally free to join, the illuminati brotherhood will not charge you for any fee, there will take care of all the charges, the reason why i am saying this testimony is to inform you all that it is totally free to join the illuminati, and if you join the illuminati on your induction day you will be given so many benefits and a cash of $2,000,000.00 to start a new life as a new member of illuminati, i don't have much to say all i can do now is, i will direct you to this email and contact phone number of the real illuminati brotherhood, because i also want you to meet the real illuminati brotherhood, contact email: richbrotherhoodofwealth@gmail.com call contact phone number or WhatsApp +1(661) 666-4507 for more info on how to be part of the brotherhood, everything on how to join is free thanks to you all that will read my testimony.

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  133. People make life difficult for their self , we are in the world were
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